Video Games in an Era of High-Definition

An indepth look at the hurdles of playing video games on High-Definition Displays.

Written by Ben Pekarek

Research Started: January, 2009
Writing Started: August, 2009
Writing Completed: December 30th, 2009 - 10:13AM CST
Published: January 18th, 2010 3:22AM CST


Up until a few years ago, the majority of TV's and Computer Monitors used Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) displays. In 2007 we saw a massive shift in Liquid Crystal Display TV sales, to the point where LCD's outsold CRT's for the first time[1]. The rapid adoption of this new technology to facilitate 'trophies of the living room' and prop up a new market in high-definition movies, has unfortunately come at a cost of performance and accuracy. The result is an array of side effects when working with interactive motion graphics, legacy video signals, and more specifically, video games.

On a message board, one user posted that his Dreamcast Light Gun was malfunctioning for House of the Dead 2, and inquired as to which light gun controller would be a good replacement. As it turns out, the root of the problem was not the light gun, but his HDTV generating image rendering delays. While people are becoming more aware of these types of situations, most are uninformed about the problems HD displays currently introduce when trying to interact with video images in real time. Documentation is often either scattered across forum discussions, or so limited in scope to the point where beginners have a hard time grasping the 'big picture'.

This article contains much of my own research on the properties of imaging displays, and aims to serve as a stepping-stone for those interested in improving their understanding of video signal processing methods. The applications for this material are far reaching, with ties to all aspects of interactive motion graphics (VR, Head Tracking, Wacom Tablets, etc). Though in this specific guide I am focusing heavily on games. Ordinarily, to cover the wide range of video output methods we would need to generate demos for testing. Video games however, have spanned the entire gamut of display methods, and due to their sense of value in the hobbyist market, we have ready-made testing environments for almost every available output.

Display Lag (Input Lag)
Often labeled as Input Lag at most websites, I have chosen to specifically refer to it as "Display" lag. The term Input Lag is already associated with lag generated between the controller to the game console itself, where internal circutrey in joypad converters can lead to delayed input response. What we are talking about here is a delay in image display, rather than user input.

Display lag results in a user's input commands in relation to the game's video signal being delayed. For non-interactive content like movies or television this is certainly not a problem, but for video games, display lag is a big concern. Imagine trying to make a ball bounce on the screen by pressing a button, but due to the delay, the ball feels like it is bouncing far later than expected. There is a disconnect between the user and their active participation with technology. The greater the delay, the less connection the user feels with the visual material.

The 3 prime causes for Display Lag include: De-Interlacing, Post Processing, and Overdrive.


The 3 primary HDTV native resolutions include: 720p, 1080p, and 1080i. Though the majority of HDTV's are either 720p or 1080p. The numbers reflect the total number of horizontal pixels the screen is capable of displaying. Letters "p" and "i" stand for "progressive scan" and "interlaced" respectively. While 1080i and 1080p have the same resolution, the number of lines drawn in any frame is different due to the signal type being Interlaced or Progressive.
  • Interlaced - Only half the lines are drawn in each frame. The even horizontal lines are drawn in one frame/field, followed by only the odd horizontal lines in the following field. So for 1080i, only 540 lines are being displayed in any given frame.

  • Progressive Scan - Displays every line at once. With 1080p, each frame contains all 1080 lines of display information.
One cause for a large portion of display lag is whether the incoming signal is interlaced. If your game console is outputting a default resolution of 480i to your HDTV, the television first needs to "de-interlace" the 480i signal into a progressive signal. Deinterlacing is a process by which the two odd and even fields of the Interlaced signal are re-combined to create a single frame. Almost 30-40% of lag on average can be attributed to this process.

Furthermore, there are many HDTV's that simply cannot interpret 240p low-resolution signals. Which means every game console from the Playstation 1 era and prior can have compatibility problems with such displays.

For reference, below is a chart showing every major game console released in North America, along with the resolution modes used by their respective software libraries.

Note: The only two 1080i games on the Playstation 2 are developed by Polyphony Digital: Gran Turismo 4 & Tourist Trophy. On GameCube, the only known 240p games include the NES emulations of Zelda and Zelda II on the Zelda Collectors Edition promo disc. The MegaMan X Collection runs in 240p on PS2, but I have not yet confirmed this for GameCube or XBOX.

240p 480i 480p 480p(VGA) 720p 1080p 1080i
Atari 2600
Sega Master System
Sega Genesis, SegaCD, 32X, Nomad
Super Nintendo, Super Gameboy
TurboGrafx 16, Turbo CD
Nintendo 64
240p x x x x x x
240p 480i x x x x x
Dreamcast 240p 480i x 480p(VGA) x x x
Playstation 2 240p 480i 480p x x x 1080i
GameCube 240p 480i 480p x x x x
XBOX x 480i 480p x 720p x x
Wii x 480i 480p x x x x
Wii (Virtual Console) 240p 480i 480p x x x x
PSP-2000 x x 480p x x x x
GameBoy Player (GC)
x 480i 480p x x x x
PS3 (PS1 & PS2 games) x 480i x x x x x
Playstation 3 x 480i 480p x 720p 1080p 1080i
Xbox 360 x 480i 480p x 720p 1080p 1080i

Green nearly all games support it
Blue most games support it
Orange some games support it
Red few games support it
x no games support it

Post Processing

Due to the use of Plasma and LCD technology, HD displays are restricted to 'fixed pixel' resolutions, and can only render images when matching the native screen resolution. Any image not matching this native resolution must be scaled and processed before appearing on the screen. Additional lag can be generated from this due to "Post Processing" effects intended to improve quality during image scaling. Samsung's DNIe technology is just one example[2]. Not only does this add more lag, but it can also greatly distort the appearance of 2-Dimensional game sprites(which I will later cover in more depth).

Some displays include a "GameMode" which aims to disable the Post Processing. However often times this mode does not disable all of the routines, and lag is still present.


If you have been reading up on HD displays, you may have already heard about Response Time. This refers to the time it takes for pixels to illuminate and de-illuminate, shifting between color values. A display with a low pixel response time will result in image ghosting, which gives off the impression of motion blur.

Prevalent in PVA and MVA PC monitor TFT panels, a technique currently referred to as 'OverDrive' is used to reduce such ghosting. Overdrive uses higher levels of voltage to force liquid crystals in TFT panels to change color more rapidly. For graphic design and animation professionals who use these types of displays, it is essential as it boosts pixel response[3a].

Unfortunately, this process generates lag and even occurs when processing a progressive signal matching the native resolution of your monitor. Under these conditions, any signal passed into the display will be delayed.


As of this writing, nearly every HD display on the market generates some degree of lag. Manufacturers are silent on the issue. In a February 2009 article by, researchers contacted both Dell and Samsung probing for information on input lag, only to have such questions brushed aside with no answers[3b]. Companies are actively advertising Pixel Response Time in milliseconds in product specs. However very few have begun to openly address the problem of lag.

Lag Detection
"Even if my HDTV lags, I can't sense it when playing my games. Therefore it doesn't matter. Right?"

For many, ignorance is bliss, and most would prefer to cling to it in spite of knowledge to the contrary. Who wants to admit their new $1,000+ High-Definition display is actually inferior for the purposes of playing games as their old SD counterpart. Especially when they just hauled it out to the dumpster or donated it to a second hand shop.

Display lag is easier felt than seen. While all of the games you output to HD may lag, only specific examples will enable the player to readily feel it through gameplay.

The best analogy I can make is to imagine a wall in your home that was recently re-painted. Instead of painting the entire wall, you only re-painted certain spots showing wear and tear. You assumed the newly purchased paint would perfectly match the existing color of your wall. The paint dries, and weeks go by where you don't notice anything unusual. Then one night you sit down for dinner, with the lights slightly dimmed, and you realize a grave mistake was made. The wall's splotchy paint-job suddenly jumps out at you under those specific conditions.

This is similar to what detecting display lag is like.

A contributing factor towards detecting display lag, can be your level of active involvement with the medium of games.
  • If your Nintendo 64 or Sega Genesis have been collecting dust in a coat closet, then yea, taking out those consoles and connecting them to your HDTV is not going to instantly reveal noticeable lag. You probably haven't played them in years, or at least not recently enough to pick up on gameplay differences.

  • Playing the average Third Person or First Person shooter from your console is going to be a poor indicator of lag as well. Analog Sticks in game controllers have a very limited range of motion. To compensate for this, developers extend the range of motion by adding preset lag or 'slurring' with 3D camera movements to make them more fluid. In this situation it is will be difficult to detect subtle amounts of display lag, since there is already a delay in camera movement.

  • Even if you have been playing video games since you were younger, when you only own a small number of games at any given moment, and your habits include constantly buying and reselling to local game shops, you probably aren't going to detect lag. This churn and burn method of playing prevents one from becoming familiar enough with a games control mechanics. Your brand new console, and your brand new game, on your brand new TV... is a brand new experience. Thus there is no point of reference for you to previously compare it to.
Display lag is primarily a problem for people who are entrenched in interactive media on a daily basis, who require precise image response as a result of user input. Any game once played frequently on a Standard Definition display that encouraged precise button executions, is going to have detectable lag on HDTV's. Your reaction time to opponent attacks in Kizuna Encounter will be off, your scores will be lower in beatMania, and you will miss enemy targets in Time Crisis or House of the Dead. Experienced game players tend to get a feeling that "something seems a little off".

The following games can be quick indicators of input lag if you played them regularly on SD displays:
  • Fighting Games (King of Fighters, Street Fighter II, etc)
  • Rhythm Games (beatMania, Pop n' Music, etc)
  • Light Gun Shooters (House of the Dead, Time Crisis, etc)
  • Scrolling Shooters, aka 'shmups' (Ikaruga, Raiden, Gradius, etc)
The best way to sense the existence of lag is to play the game on each setup in reverse order. Spend a period of time playing the game on the HD setup first where lag is present, then switch over to the zero delay CRT setup. Here you will suddenly feel how tight and responsive the CRT setup plays.
Lag Tests
Fortunately, we do not have to rely solely sense or feel to detect lag. We can actually pinpoint the severity of lag in milliseconds using a simple hardware setup, outlined in the following steps:
  1. Establish a Control - When testing any Hypothesis, one needs to have a "control", which is a pre-defined standard to which other data can be compared. Here, a CRT display will be used for a control, as they generate zero delays in image rendering. You can use either a CRT PC monitor or a Standard Definition Television.

  2. Choose a signal source, with a timer in milliseconds - Select a video game console of your choosing and make note of its output signal. For software, select a game that displays a timer in milliseconds. Racing games can be fantastic options for this.

  3. Split the signal - We are going to be displaying a single video signal onto two separate displays simultaneously. In order to do this, we need to split the signal. If you have one lying around the house, VCR's can be a great way to split Composite or S-Video to 2 output sources. To split VGA, you can use a VGA splitter.

  4. Capture Simultaneous Image of Timers - For this you will need a digital camera. Start the game as it is generating the timecode in milliseconds on both displays, and then snap a picture with a digital camera.
The type of cable used will have no impact on Display Lag. It is the signal type (Resolution + Progressive or Interlaced + hz frequency) that determines lag. Composite, S-Video, and Component cables will all yield identical lag results. 60hz VGA however can be slightly improved over 31hz 480p signals.

Here is a diagram of my testing setup:

It must be clarified that my tests in the following examples were not performed using an actual HDTV, but rather in a simulated environment using the exact same image processing routines as HDTV's. I use a scaler device known as the XRGB-3.

At this point you might be ready to raise your hand to say "ah HA! Your not even using an HDTV! Your process is flaw...", slowdown there tiger. When run in "B0 Scaling Mode" the XRGB-3 uses similar image processing and de-interlacing technology as consumer grade HDTV's. The signal must then be sent to a zero lag CRT display in order to prevent additional lag from interfering with the test results. Furthermore, display lag varies by HDTV model and manufacturer. Even if I owned one HD display there are 20 others that would generate entirely different results. The key point being, I am still using the same overall technology.

With that being said, the primary goal of these tests are not to show you how much lag you will get on your TV, but to show:

  1. Lag is indeed generated by HD scaling technology.


  2. To show you just one example of how to accurately test for display lag.

One interesting aspect of this testing environment (as opposed to using a true LCD Hi-Definition display) is that we are able to isolate 2 of the 3 primary factors for display lag (De-interlacing and Post Processing). Overdrive is thus eliminated from the equation through our usage of a CRT as the output method and the XRGB-3 as the scaling device. This affords us the ability to determine how much lag can be attributed to both De-Interlacing and Image Processing for the XRGB-3. Otherwise, if all 3 factors played a role, we could only account for De-Interlacing alone. Post Processing and Overdrive would be grouped together with no way to distinguish their impact on the end result.

Below you can see an example of one of the lag tests. The left image represents the SDTV where the image signal is coming in lag-free, and on right you can see the amount of delay/lag that is occurring as the same output source is being processed through the XRGB-3 scaler device. Lag is measured in milliseconds, which are 1/1000th of a second. This value actually has 3 digits and counts up to 999, but some timers will drop off the last digit value. The games used in my testing("Virtual On" for the Sega Saturn and Dreamcast) only use 2 of these values. So what you may prematurely think to be 4ms, is actually a difference 40ms. Also, the milliseconds timer for Virtual On counts down backwards; where-as most other timers will count forwards. Be sure to keep this in mind when looking at other lag test results online.

SDTV XRGB-3 "B0" mode
480p 60hz scaled to 1024 x 767
240p scaled to 1024 x 767
480i scaled to 1024 x 767

These images alone are not accurate enough to discern the true amount of latency. Image processing efficiency can fluctuate based on how much visual information is displaying in each frame, similar to clarity fluctuations in compression codecs based on frame complexity. So I took 20 photos of each test setup, and then averaged the data to find an accurate end result. Below you can see the product of these tests for each signal type. Instead of using a more common 480p signal from an Xbox, GameCube, or PS2 game; I decided to use the Dreamcast's higher quality 480p 60hz VGA signal.

Source Signal SD Test 1024 x 767 1280 x 1023 Samples
480p 60hz
(Dreamcast VGA)
CRT (zero lag) (30ms lag) (26ms lag) 20
(Saturn S-Video)
SDTV (zero lag) (34ms lag) (34ms lag) 20
(Dreamcast S-Video)
SDTV (zero lag) (60ms lag) (57ms lag) 20

Notice the extreme lag generated when trying to process a 480i (interlaced) signal. The de-interlacing process is adding a considerable amount of lag in order to process the signal from interlaced to progressive.

A common myth among the gaming community is that for the Dreamcast, it's VGA support can eliminate lag 'entirely' on all displays. While 480pVGA is superior to standard 480p coming from a component cable, this improvement is not enough to yield the lag reductions people are reporting from using VGA. It is possible to bypass a large portion of the display lag by using a Dreamcast VGA box, however the reason for this has nothing to do with the VGA box, but instead the HDTV itself. Certain HDTV's are designed to drop time intensive post processing effects for incoming VGA signals. You may see this referred to as "VGA Pass-Through".

The point here is to not assume lag is being eliminated. There are HDTV's that do apply post processing to VGA signals. So test your setup to determine exactly how much of a delay is being generated. The "I can't detect any lag therefore it does not exist" simply will not hold up.

Just for the sake of argument, let's test a 640x480 VGA signal on an actual HD display. One of the most widely used 24 inch LCD Computer displays as of this writing, the Dell 2408WFP.

SDTV Dell 2408WFP
480p 60hz scaled to 1920 x 1200

As we can see above, display lag is clearly occurring, with an initial result here of about 40ms.
Image Anomalies
In addition to lag, the next big problem with High-Definition displays comes in the form of Image Anomolies and Artifacts. Some are generated based on the limitations of current LCD and Plasma technology. Where-as others are a direct result of the manufacturers choice in image processing algorithms. This issue becomes even more complex once you begin using video processing equipment in conjunction with consoles that generate odd signal types. Even if you manage to minimize lag for classic game consoles, the generated picture will often end up looking horrible. Certain members in the AV enthusiast community have been voraciously attacking this problem. Some of the main culprits include: interpolation, ghosting, and inverse ghosting.


Instead of simply scaling an image as is without any image processing; most manufacturers assume they know what is best for the consumer. During the image scaling process, they decide to "smooth out" the image through a process known as Interpolation. New data points are approximated based on existing pixel coordinates. To look at an example of Interpolation, one needs to simply open a graphics editing application and perform some simple image scaling.

Below we have a series of 2D character sprites:

Sprite(A) is the originating graphic from the source game. However once we display this image on a Standard Definition CRT display, we get what looks like Sprite(B). A 240p image, rendered with alternating scanlines that accent the pixels, providing a vibrant display of 2D game art on screen. At anything other than a low-resolution capable CRT, hardware based scanlines will not generate (though it is possible to emulate them via software overlays to a degree).

So Sprite(C) shows what we would see through emulation software on a Computer Operating System. Raw pixels, scaled at 2x zoom, unfiltered and unprocessed.

Now we come to Sprite(D). This is the originating Sprite(A), scaled and then interpolated via Bicubic Interpolation. It is how a High-Definition LCD would process the image. The end result is a blurry representation of its former self. For any serious game enthusiast, this should be unacceptable.


Ghosting, relates to Response Time. Pixels on screen take a certain amount of time before they shift colors. If a display has a sluggish response time, you can see the previously displayed image in the screen during motion sequences. Speed of image motion and location will impact the severity of ghosting. Instead of just showing examples of ghosting, lets compound this on top of Interpolation to give you an idea of what a final image displaying on your typical HDTV or LCD Monitor might look like.

Below we have what Super Mario Bros might look like when running on an SDTV. Crisp graphics behind hardware generated scanlines.

Now below we have Mario showing on what could be an HD display. The image is first interpolated, and due to the screen scrolling, slight ghosting blur is added on top of the already distorted image. Mario is moving at a much faster pace as he jumps across the screen. So his level of ghosting is much more prominent.

Like the individual character sprites we analyzed above, let's take a closer look.

Here is the raw image, with a scanline overlay:

Then here is the same image, taken through the post processing needed to get it to appear on a High-Definition display:

As is the case with most post processing, the overall image is "sharpened" after it is interpolated. Which results in halos around text and objects against solid colors. Notice the outer edges of the clouds and text at the top of the screen.

The absurd irony is, you are better off playing Super Mario Brothers in an Emulator running within a PC operating system, than you are playing from the original game console on the very same HD display.

While using different video cables yields no difference in display lag, they do in fact dramatically impact image clarity. The main leap in graphical difference comes as a result of avoiding composite (yellow RCA cables). Using S-Video whenever possible yields a huge leap over composite, with Component/RGB adding further detail and color saturation enhancement.

Inverse Ghosting

Inverse Ghosting is just like standard ghosting. However the pixels are being overdriven with such intensity, that the ghosted images are color inverted.

Extra Info

One also needs to take into consideration the source image quality for certain 2D releases. Various arcade ports and classic game compilations which were once 240p on their native systems, often get treated with pixel filters and anti-flicker blurring when setup to run in 480i. So take Samurai Shodown Anthology for the PS2, a game that already has subtle interpolation applied by default, add even more interpolation by the TV display, toss in re-sharpening, then ghosting; and you end up with a complete mess. A far cry from what was once a beautiful display of 2D arcade perfection.
Counteracting The Problems
Video-philes are still continuing their crusade to solve the problems of lag and image artifacting. It is possible to decrease the amount of lag generated by HD and in rare instances nearly eliminate it, but no definitive "all purpose" solution has been found. For those starting from the very beginning, who have little or no knowledge about solving such problems, it is going to be a monumental challenge. One practically needs to turn himself or herself into an authoritative expert in order to devise a solution.

Where movies are the dominant discussion point for the mainstream television market, games are at the forefront of multi-media in personal computing. Therefore, it would be wise to keep an eye on PC LCD displays in addition to HDTV's. Companies are more likely to update hardware for those using PC's to play fast paced First Person Shooters. Technology e-zines are now doing lag tests with PC monitor reviews, but few websites currently do this consistently for HD television displays.

Even though Consumer HDTV's have widely documented and proven high levels of lag, there are HDTV's that have under 4ms of lag right out of the box. They are referred to as "Digital Signage" and are designed for Hospitals, Airports, Japanese Arcades and other professional businesses that require precise up to the millisecond displays[4]. Other products like Dell's 3007WFP-HC[5], and NEC's MultiSync LCD24WMGX3 are capable of displaying under 8ms of lag right out of the box, which is the current accepted level of lag for those who play frame sensitive Arcade fighting games.

The only product thus far to begin addressing both lag and post processing is the new Eizo Foris FX2431. A PC monitor that has a "ThruMode" to reduce lag (still has quite a bit of lag), and a "Real Image" mode to output a raw image with little to no image processing applied. They actually have pixel-based sprites as examples in the product listing. With a kitchen sink of connectivity and configuration options, this product is frighteningly close to what we should expect from future HD displays. Regardless of the display you choose to buy (or already own), using intermediary video processing and scaling equipment as well as performing extensive tests will still be necessary. It is currently impossible to purchase a standalone HD solution for video games in High-Definition that is truly backwards compatible with older interactive devices.

Displaying 240p

To even begin to render lower resolutions in HD, one needs what is known as a "line doubler". A lag free device that simply doubles the number of available pixels without scaling or image processing. This will convert the image into 480p format so it can actually be shown on displays that would otherwise be unable to process 240p to begin with.

Reducing Display Lag

In addition to getting around the 240p compatibility problem, using a line doubler avoids the de-interlacing lag for 480i content shown in our testing results above. The best devices currently available for such purposes are Micomsoft's XRGB series of video processors. Originating from Japan, these rarely appear on western auction services, and will cost you anywhere from 250-450 dollars.

Controlling Image Quality

Image Quality control is much more complicated. It requires circumventing the internal hardware of an HD display, by using a video processing device between the HD display and the source signal to upconvert it to its native resolution with clearer image processing. The XRGB-3 does perform this in its B0 Scaling mode, however there are many others that do a much better job such as the Optoma HD3000. The primary goal though is to use a scaler that performs faster processing routines with better quality image results. Such devices can run well into the thousands of dollars, and in some instances you may find yourself daisy chaining them to get around these problems.
The Solution
The best solution to avoiding these problems? Keep your SDTV or PC CRT Monitor.

If you enjoy playing classic game consoles like the Sega Genesis, NeoGeo, Dreamcast, or PS2, then play your games how they were meant to be played on the best possible display you can get. This just so happens to be the Cathode Raytube Technology in SDTV's and CRT PC Monitors. Not only do you get lag free gaming, but you also benefit from hardware generated scanlines in 2D games that support 240p. It is possible to emulate them using very specific equipment in HD, but it still is not identical to the experience you would get on a Standard Definition CRT.

For an SDTV, be sure to use one that has S-Video or Component video inputs. Do not settle for Composite/RF only inputs if you don't have to! You may want to look into RGB monitors for the ultimate display for classic 2D games. Though the RGB/SCART video standard is more prevalent in Japan and Europe.

I am not saying you need to own a 32 inch, 250 pound beast of a TV for your classic games. Try keeping the TV weight at 75 pounds or less so it can be moved around easily. You'll be more willing to hold onto it rather than feeling like you have a car in the living room. Anything between 13" to 24" would be just fine for playing classic video game consoles.

I do feel the ongoing quest to correct display lag and image rendering on HDTV's is a worthwhile pursuit, and it is a topic I follow quite regularly. I could have gotten into intricate detail on how to mitigate the side effects of classic gaming in HD. However, this article is much more about presenting the scope of the problem, and then recommending the most logical solution. Someday companies will inevitably improve the image processing technology in HD displays, rendering this entire article quite useless. If display manufacturers can at least eliminate the lag problem, third party companies will rise to the challenge of providing niche markets the interim devices needed to get classic games looking good without any additional lag.

Until then, keep your SDTV around for classic systems. Try to isolate your HDTV for movies and hi-definition platforms only (PS3, 360, PC).
Additional Comments
I could have easily extrapolated onto the various technology points brought up throughout this reading. I chose to frame this in a specific informative structure. The real goal here is to breakdown a culture clash in consumer technology. The active participants in gaming, as consumers, are restricted based on their limited level of knowledge on such topics. As such, their ties to the past are being severed due to the meteoric rise of new technology markets. In fact, if given the chance, your average marketing suit would climb through your window in the middle of the night and set fire to all of your old technology, simply so they could re-package it and sell it to you again via a download service that is facilitated by yet another multi-hundred dollar platform expenditure.

Past Interactive Digital Works (in this case video games) should be preserved in a way as to sustain the same optimal level of response time and image clarity as intended upon their initial public release.

Providing such information as outlined above, helps the end user to take the matter into their own hands. Thus empowering them to choose for themselves how they go about interfacing with not only games, but also other interactive digital experiences as they arise.
Sources Cited
  1. LCD TV Shipments Outstrip CRTs,2817,2265683,00.asp

  2. Reference to DNIe lag in a Samsung LN-T4061F display.

  3. The Dark Side of Overdrive


Further Reading
These resources can best be described as a maelstrom of technical information. They are extended docs that will give you information in much greater detail. Some of the thread discussions are also key resources for tracking the ongoing problems of HD displays and classic game consoles.

Fudoh's De-Interlacing Guide - It has very little on actual lag information, but is one of the best resources out there for learning about controlling image clarity on HDTV's.

The HDTV Lag FAQ at Shoryuken Forums, a well known Fighting Game community. Probobly the best resource for solving lag on HDTV's. Unlike AVSForum which just gives random information on the issue of Lag, these people are highly motivated to stomp out lag entirely.

HDTVs and Video Game Lag: The Problem and the Solution

ARogan's extensive Lag Tests

Wikipedia's Display Lag article

A guide on modelines, but it also includes an extremely detailed overview of Cathode Raytube Technology.

Pixel art scaling algorithms

Beyond3D - An excellent resource for reading up on GPU architectures and image processing in great detail. Content is usually developer centric in nature.

© Ben Pekarek 2010, All Rights Reserved